Archive for August, 2011

Try This at Home

August 19, 2011

Official “Zonkaraz” patch

Does anyone else play air tambourine? I have just started. Listening to music alone I usually dance or play air-drums/guitar/keys all with proper lower lip bite adding that certain je ne sais quoi, but today I got my copy of the Zonkaraz reunion DVD and I took up the air tambourine. It’s not easy. I play a very authentic air guitar, but it’s going to be work to get the jingle jangle just right. Besides great rhythm you need great cool. Spider had both in spades and I miss him.

For those who don’t know, Spider held dual roles with Zonkaraz – he was both the head of the stage crew and the band’s percussionist. He started as a roady (ask Paul about teaching him to drive) and added some rhythm for his own merriment from behind the PA. Eventually, he became part of the stage show, but never gave up his roady gig. When the band broke up Spider moved to L.A. and continued to do road work. His heart stopped in Australia while on tour with the EELs.

I still have the Zonkaraz patch Spider had made for all of us on the crew to sew on to the jumpsuits we were going to get when the band made it big. Everyone would know we were the best crew working for the best band because of our matching coveralls with custom patches appliquéd over our hearts. Doing roady work, as glamorous as it sounds, is dirty work and these adult onesies were to keep our black tee-shirts and tight jeans clean.

After the bus was unloaded and the stage was set Spider envisioned steppin’ out of his jumpsuit and being ready rock his soul with the band in one smooth unzip. The suits never happened, but he was already right where I wanted to be – dancing with Jo, reflecting Paul’s “Are you ready?” look, fanning Walter during a blazing solo – sweating coolness. Spider was an amplifier, multiplying everyone’s onstage energy to the audience. The Rockettes-like line up during “Take Me By The Hand” was his idea and insured that those few still seated at least had their feet tapping under the table.

Paul “Spider” Hanson was Everyman. He was a gun-packing peace lover. He was Steven Tyler and Mick Jagger rolled up into one without the feathers or the accent, but with the attributes of a porn star. He was the guy who always had the snappy come back right away and Spider could tell a joke. But he is not on the DVD.

So here is your chance. If you have a hoop earring – put it in! Put on the DVD and turn up up loud. Michael Allard-Madaus will supply the percussion sounds and you supply the cool. Do your best rockin’ forth and back moves, spank that tambourine! Tease your fingers across your wind chimes! Shake your maracas! Dance with the band! Channel Spider! Make it look easy!

Get the DVD here

A comment about Spider from the EELs here

A comment of the life(?) of Worcester’s roadies here
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Holden on to Sanity

August 9, 2011

Ass clowns for Larouche

“Yes, I have heard of the First Amendment” I answered to the two men at the Lyndon Larouche/ Obama as Hitler booth set up in front of our town post office. I was there to mail a letter and upon seeing their sign I had to ask what it was all about. I was asked to sign a petition, but I asked them if they thought their portrait of Obama as Hitler was over the top. I told them that I found it offensive to compare someone responsible for killing millions of my fellow humans to a political leader (and please, I’m using that term loosely) with whose policies they disagree. They told me it was their first amendment right to offend me and I didn’t disagree. What I did say is that it wasn’t their right to do it where they were standing, on a side walk in the town of Holden. And that is where my lesson started for today.

Holden has a sidewalk ordinance that clearly states that no political sign can be within two feet of a sidewalk. I called the police to see if they were aware of the booth and they said they had already been by and determined they were not blocking the sidewalk so they would allow it. OK, I guess this falls under police discretion and the police should be able to use their best judgement. I wrote one of the select board to bring it to their attention. Next I thought I would check out the legality of political actions on federal property (the post office) because a friend, accused of electioneering on federal property, was asked to stop by police. This was because she was talking to some folks about her candidacy for the select board in that town while in line .
Well, it turns out you can’t be for or against a particular candidate on federal property, but you can be for or against issues. The Larouche kool-aid drinkers (and pictured as the ass clowns they are) were collecting signatures on a petition to invoke the 25th amendment (article 4) to remove Obama because he is “incapacitated.” This is their “issue.” They don’t like Obama, they like Larouche (his name was on everything) but they talked anti-healthcare and impeachment so this skirts the federal rules on electioneering.
And that was my lesson – as much as I would like things to be simple, they are not. Issues are never black and white, which is why there has to be nuance (a much scorned term these days). I hate that the killer of millions is compared to an ineffectual president because it diminishes Hitler’s acts. And here is what else I learned – my fellow Holdenites are nobody’s fool, not one signature on their petition! Wheeee….

Terrorism, Religion and Politics

August 8, 2011

This is a paper I wrote some years ago about terrorism, religion and politics. The question I was trying to answer was the claim that Islam is the source of terrorism. The conclusion was that religion (not just Islam) becomes the most potent – deadly – vehicle for essentially nationalist motives.  After the recent rally in Texas where the governor and presumed presidential candidate, Rick Perry, has wrapped himself in the flag and is carrying a cross (the prophecy of Sinclair Lewis coming true) I thought it was time to resurrect this tome and just put it out there.

(5 Dec ’15) The hosting of the databases containing much of the research for this piece have been moved to START and will need to be updated at some future time.

A True Story

I got home from school and went across

the street to play at Bobby Washburn’s house.

Bobby was my best friend.

We were both eight.

The rest of the neighborhood kids were already over there playing out back.

I had been to CCD class.

There I found out that unless you were Catholic you could not go to heaven.

Bobby’s family was Protestant.

I had to tell him.

He punched me.

I punched him back.

Introduction

The question of whether a religion can be a source of modern terrorism is one answered daily by the media with an indictment of Islam. It is in the context of the ongoing struggles in the Middle East that Hamas, Fatah and Hezbollah are in the news enough for the average American to recognize their names. With the attacks on the World Trade Center carried out by Saudi Arabian members of al-Qaeda[1], the train bombings in Madrid by the Moroccan Islamic Combat Group prior to the Spanish elections[2] and the explosions in the London Underground set off by Britain’s own home grown radical Moslems,[3] Islam seems to be the breeding ground for much of the terrorist activity in the world today. The connection between terrorism and Islam is so strong in today’s media that the first question Boston’s talk radio host Howie Carr asked after the Oklahoma bombing was, “What are we going to do with these towelheads?”[4]  President Bush told the world after 9/11 that he would carry on a “crusade” to defeat Islamic terrorism.[5] This harkens back to Pope Urban II’s call for Christian armies to rise up and protect the true believers and holy sites in Jerusalem from the Mohammedans in 1095CE. Is the religion of Mohammed the source of the problem? Is there something peculiar to Islam that leads its followers to commit these atrocities? Or is it the nature of religion, any religion, to impart some rationale that justifies these heinous acts?

Before the question can be answered whether it is Islam or religion in general motivating terrorist actions it would help to understand and define two broad ideas: (1) what is religion and (2) what is terrorism.

What is Religion?

Nearly 85% of the world professes a belief in some religion. Though each faith’s theology has characteristics that separate it from the next there is enough commonality for the first question to be answered satisfactorily with a succinct paragraph from the dictionary. There religion is defined as the:

   …concern over what exists beyond the visible world, as differentiated from philosophy in that it operates through faith or intuition rather than reason, and generally including the idea of the existence of a single being, a group of beings, an external principle, or a transcendent spiritual entity that has created the world, that governs it, that controls its destinies, or that intervenes occasionally in the natural course of its history, as well as the idea that ritual, prayer, spiritual exercises, certain principles of everyday conduct, etc., are expedient, due, or spiritually rewarding, or arise naturally out of an inner need.[6]

The top five religions include 78% of the world’s population. They are Christians, Muslims, Hindus, Chinese Universists, and Buddhists[7]. These are referred to as the mainstream religions and each is dominant within certain geographic areas, though all are practiced worldwide. Within each of these broad labels are smaller grouping such as Catholics or Sunni and within those are subsets such as Traditionalists or Wahhabi and each can be parsed further. Opus Dei and the Muslim Brotherhood are examples of those smaller groups. One source estimates that there are 34,000 separate faith groups in the world that consider themselves to be Christian.[8] The mainstream writings of each of these religions revere the sanctity of human life, however with enough eyes on any subject an interpretation can be found to justify anything; including the justification of violence – the main tool of terrorism.

What is Terrorism?

The second part – “What is terrorism?” – is more difficult to sum up. Terrorism, like pornography, is hard to define, but as Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart said, “I know when I see it.”[9] Few words are as politically or emotionally charged as terrorism. The difficulty is distinguishing between the terrorist and the freedom fighter; as in the Arab / Israeli conflict where both sides make the case that the other is the terrorist and they themselves are the freedom fighter. While trying to define terrorism for the US Army War College in 2003 Dr. Jeffrey Record cites prior attempts including “a 1988 study by the US Army [that] counted 109 definitions of terrorism that covered a total of 22 different definitional elements.” He also cites terrorism expert Walter Laqueur who in 1999 “counted over 100 definitions and conclude[d] that the ‘only general characteristic generally agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence’.”[10]

Pinpointing which acts or actions constitute terrorism is illusive and the mission of the body generating it colors the definition, however agreement as to the goal of terrorism has achieved more of a consensus. The FBI says terrorism is “the unlawful use of force or violence…in furtherance of political or social objectives.” The U.S. Department of Defense states it is “the calculated use of violence…to coerce or intimidate…as to the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or ideological.”[11] The definition and goal of the terrorist act could be summed up by saying that it is the commitment (or threat of commitment) of an outrageous violent act to force a change in a perceived outrageous injustice.

The Defense Department definition parses the goals of terrorism into three areas: “political, religious or ideological.” The political are the attempts of a population to gain regional autonomy, such as the various National Fronts that appear after colonial expansions or the ongoing struggles in the Balkans and former Soviet client states attempting to change or retain a system of government. The ideological are usually asserting a moral authority in defending the defenseless from a perceived act of aggression. Examples of ideological terrorism are the actions by the Environmental Liberation Front and its attack on the US Forest Service Research Station in Pennsylvania or the Animal Liberation Front’s attack on Huntingdon Life Sciences in New Jersey. Often the ideological blurs with the political, as in the attacks by anarchist groups against government generally; or with the religious, such as the abortion wars promulgated by extremist Christian groups.

This blending is indicative of some of the same difficulties in categorizing terrorism as there is in defining it. In any goal oriented action one of the rewards is the achievement of that goal. The goals of the ideological and political are aimed at bettering or correcting life as they see it now or in the future here on this world and the reward would be in that achievement. However, as religious terrorism crosses boundaries with the ideological and the political, it carries with it one major distinction – the possibility of reward in the next world. Whereas all the actions taken by the other groups are based in a cost/benefit calculation rooted in the here and now; religious terrorism makes the same calculation, but with the additional benefit of a reward for the righteousness of the effort. Only the religious groups can doubly justify their actions.  And therein lies the rub; the “concern over what exists beyond the visible world.”

That concern is demonstrated by the level and depth of commitment to the cause. The level can be measured in terms of self-interest and/or self-sacrifice. When the cause is the advancement of a race, language, land or social utopia, the commitment can be deep, but add the possibility of everlasting eternal happiness and the commitment goes even deeper. “A political foundation of fear requires cultural and symbolic support that it is necessary, valid and effective and that has practical payoffs. One of the helpful contributions of the religious mandate is that the ultimate payoff can be assumed. Even when things are not going well in the battle ~ there is always the realization that eternal salvation is yours for the believing…”[12] This totality of commitment when the motivation has religious underpinnings is evidenced by a study of prosecutions of terrorists prepared for the Department of Justice. Less than 25% of those citing religious convictions as the basis of their acts would accept a plea-bargain versus nearly 70% of the leftist, communist, anarchist ideologues who agreed to “take the deal.”[13]

According to Anthony Burton in his tome, Revolutionary Violence, “Nationalism has continued to be the main inspiration for the wars and insurrections of our times.”[14] Studies of terrorism data collected worldwide support his contention that nationalism is the number one motivator. Examining the databases of the Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, a clearinghouse for such information maintained at the University of Arkansas, reveals religious groups as second in the number of organizations and third in number of incidents perpetrated; but true to the increased level of commitment that religious groups command, the results of these incidents are a death toll exceeding that of the nationalists by nearly a third and the number of bodily injuries are nearly doubled. Stated another way – Though the “religious” category is second in organizational numbers and third in incidents, it is number one in killings and injuries.

The Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT), with funding from the United States Department of Homeland Security, maintains lists of terror groups and actions occurring worldwide that span 35 years with data supplied by Homeland Security, the RAND Corporation, Detica DFI (a UK based security consultancy), and KayTen Research & Development (at the University of Arkansas). The Terrorism Knowledge Base is the public use site (www.tkb.org) they maintain for sharing information between federal, state and local preparedness agencies. They list 858 terrorist groups of which the second largest category is designated “religious” with 208 distinct organizations[15]and the largest is the “Nationalist/Separatist” grouping at 339[16].

[17]

Within the incidents listed as “religious” by TKB, Islamic groups did carry out the vast majority of them, but the Jewish Defense League and its affiliate, Kach, also perpetrated a significant number; Roman Catholics, Serbian Orthodox and Turkish Muslims raged against each other in the Bosnian Civil War; Russian National Unity led a siege on the Russian parliament and bombed a synagogue to promote a return to Russian Orthodoxy.[18] Interestingly, the Protestant and Catholic terrorist groups operating in the UK and Ireland are not included in the TKB database as religious, they are under the heading of nationalist; nor are the majority of white supremacy groups in the U.S. that claim affiliation with the Christian Identity movement listed as religious; they are deemed racist.

It is not just the religions of Abraham that are prone to terrorist actions; the major eastern faiths have their adherents to terrorism and are well represented on the list. Since 1983 the predominantly Buddhist Sri Lankan government has been battling Hindu terrorists; Supreme Truth, a Buddhist cult in Japan, was the first to use chemical weapons in a terrorist attack against civilians when they released sarin gas in Matsumoto in 1994 and then repeated it in Tokyo in 1995 injuring approximately 5000.

In light of the U.S. led war in the Middle East it is not surprising that only when using the Department of State terrorist groupings do religious based organizations top the list. The department designates terrorist groups into three different classifications – Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTO), the Terrorist Exclusion List (TEL), and the Other Terrorist Organizations (OTO). These classifications are designed to help direct the actions of various departments of the government, later they are sorted by ideology.  FTOs are groups targeted to be pressured or infiltrated, TELs are groups or individuals identified by the Secretary of State activating certain provisions of the Patriot Act (2001) to prevent their entry into the United States and OTOs list the other selected groups deemed relevant to the global war on terror.[19] The tally of groups on the broader FTO and OTO list yields 81 distinct organizations. Of that number, 45 are groups whose goal as determined by the State Department is to be theocratic, 19 to establish a Marxist-Leninist state, 15 claim national liberation and 2 are groups whose purpose is undetermined. Since the tragedy of 9/11 it is no surprise that the majority of the groups on these lists are seeking an Islamic world, but also in this count are Christians, Jews, Sikhs, Buddhists and Hindus.

Beyond the 9/11 attacks by Islamic Fundamentalists, U.S. citizens without any connection to Islam committed the majority of the acts of religious terrorism within the U.S. borders. Among these acts were the bombings of the Murrah Federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995 and at Centennial Park in Atlanta during the Summer Olympics in 1996. The common thread to each of these is a connection to the Christian Identity movement. Christian Identity has been a unifying ideology for the much of the white supremacist movement along with many militia groups. The Ku Klux Klan, Phineas Priests, Aryan Nation, and the Army of God all operate loosely under these tenets. Southern Poverty Law describes this belief system’s goal as facilitating Christ’s return to earth by sweeping the globe clean of Jews and other “Satanic” influences and creating a nation ruled by a “pure” government. In a report prepared for the United States Department of Justice in 2002 studying domestically based terrorism from 1980 through 1996 states that 95 of the 294 charges of terrorism brought in that time period were against religious groups.[20] The Southern Poverty Law Center lists 37 hate groups under the heading “Christian Identity” operating in 22 states and from 2003 – 2007.[21]

These acts of terrorism committed by McVeigh and Rudolph are most likely to be attributed to them being “off” or reactionary wackos, but not to any religious zeal. The United States is primarily a white, English-speaking, Christian-cultured nation and against that backdrop these men don’t stand out. Terrorism based in Islam, however, stands out because its perpetrators are none of those things. The media notes each suicide bomber that invokes the name of Allah, but is silent when the president asks for God’s blessing and protection for our warriors being sent into Iraq. In David Altheide’s recent book, Terrorism and the Politics of Fear, in discussing the universality of invoking the deity in war he notes the pervasiveness of this kind of speech. “Moreover, national slogans that claim directly or indirectly that God is on our side – including the national anthem, the pledge of allegiance, money, government seals, as well as our slang and profanity (e.g. “oh for Christ’s sake”) – help make invisible sentiments visible in symbols that have been, essentially, appropriated in their ultimate meaning and significance by the state. Thus, most presidents, after they declare war, position themselves with the audience and the heavenly elect with the words ‘God bless America.’” [22]This seems reasonable and comforting until the other side invokes their God.

Just as the Reformation spawned a Counter-Reformation in Europe with tens of thousands dying knowing they were on God’s side; the current growth in Muslim fundamentalism has spawned a counter-balancing growth in Christian fundamentalism. (Or was the growth in Islam a reaction to the insurgence of Christian missionaries?) This polarizing religiosity has America breeding a new generation ready to take up the cause of countering fundamentalist Islam. In the documentary film, Jesus Camp, Pastor Becky Fischer leads an evangelical summer camp where kids are “taught to become Christian soldiers in God’s army.”[23] The following quotes from the film are examples of the teaching:

“I want to see children as committed to the cause of Jesus Christ as the young children committed to the cause of Islam. I want to see them as radically laying down their lives for the Gospel as they are in Pakistan, Palestine and Israel. It is no wonder with that intense training and discipline that they are ready to kill themselves.” – Pastor Becky Fischer

“Take these prophecies and do what the apostle Paul said to do with them – Make war with them.” – Pastor Becky Fischer

“Man’s decision? Whatever… God is the only one who can judge me!” – Rachel (age 8)

 The Bible and the Qu’ran are not the only sources of religious authority asserting that there is a time for righteous violence. In discussing Buddhism and violence the Dalai Lama stated, “If one’s motivation is sincere and positive but the circumstances require harsh behavior, essentially one is practicing nonviolence. No matter what the case may be, I feel that a compassionate concern for the benefit of others–not simply for oneself–is the sole justification for the use of force.” John Daido Loori Roshi, Abbot of Zen Mountain Monastery, adds, “When necessary, kill, but only out of wisdom and compassion.”[24] These statements are practical advice regarding protecting one’s self or others in case of an attack, but it is easy to see how they can be turned to justify any level of violence.

Conclusion

The religious justification for terrorism at first seems at odds with the teachings of peace and fellowship the majority of the worlds’ faiths espouse, but the world has a long history of religious practitioners finding this justification. On the fringe of belief systems based on “faith or intuition rather than reason” is room for interpretations of scripture that allow for almost any action. Is a source of modern terrorism Islam? Yes – That version of Islam that sees the world solely in black or white, as all good or all evil is a source of terrorism, but so is that version of Christianity, Judaism and Hinduism.  This is nothing new. To quote Voltaire, “Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.” But most terrorism is still Nationalist/Separatist in origin and goal and this is often overlooked because of the extreme violence of the Religious category. The pagan Roman rule in Judea was put upon by the Jewish Sicarii and their daggers; the Islamic Hashashim not only terrorized the Crusaders, but any Muslim leader they deemed not pious enough; Catholics, Protestants and the Troubles -All territorial issues that forced religious confrontations. This mixing of government and religion has lead to some of the lowest points in man’s history. The Thirty Years War, St. Bartholomew’s Day and the Wars of Religion in France, the Jesuits and the Counter-Reformation, Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot, today’s Abortion Wars, the list continues to grow with deaths that mount into the millions. The most powerful motivation for the religious terrorist is the belief these acts are the best way to please and serve God. Beyond nationalistic or political considerations, religious terrorism has no military objective; it is a holy war is with a spiritual objective. This spiritual objective justifies more outrageous acts than mere military or political goals because the stakes are seen as higher. Though Islam is commonly connected to terrorism in the western media there is nothing intrinsic in that religion that make it the main source of violence. Most of the actions portrayed as religious in our media are actually nationalist in nature; the religious component just drives the followers to commit the most outrageous acts. (read “media friendly” e.g. “if it bleeds, it leads”) Terrorism is not exclusive to Islam and it is certainly not Christian. It is “holier than thou” intolerance.  It is the promise all religions make of future rewards that is the source of the most extreme danger, but not the only danger.

Bibliogaphy

Altheide, David.  Terrorism and the Politics of Fear. Oxford. AltaMira Press. 2006.

Atwan, Abdel Bari. The Secret History of al Qaeda. Berkeley, University of California. 2006.

Barrett, David et al. World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions – AD 30 to 2200.  London,

Oxford University Press, 2001.

Bryce, Steve. “Worldwide Adherents of All Religions, Mid-2005” File was created using Microsoft Excel 2007 and Irfanview

3.99.17:36, 16 February 2007. Data Source:http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9432620/Worldwide-Adherents-of-All- Religions-Mid-2005  accessed October 30, 2007.

BBC World News. 15 February 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4899544.stm accessed online 10/23/2007.

BBC World News. 27 January 2006 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4732361.stm accessed online 10/23/2007.

Carr, Howie. WRKO. 20 March 1994.

Ewing, Heidi and Grady, Rachel. Jesus Camp  Magnolia Home Video. 2005.

Federal Bureau of Investigation “The FBI releases 19 photographs of individuals believed to be the hijackers of the four airliners that

crashed on September 11, 01” Press Release –  27 September 2001

http://www.fbi.gov/pressrel/pressrel01/092701hjpic.htm  accessed online 10/24/2007

Ford, Peter. “Europe Cringes at Bush Crusade’ Against Terrorists” Christian Science Monitor 19 September 2001 available from

http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0919/p12s2-woeu.html accessed online 10/23/2007

Pintak, Lawrence.The Terror Koan-American Buddhists Contemplate Violence”

http://www.beliefnet.com/story/89/story_8930_2.html accessed 11/9/07.

Record, Jeffrey. “Bounding the Global War on Terrorism” SSI – U.S. Army War College. 2003

Smith, Brent and Damphousse, Kelly. American Terrorism Study: Patterns of Behavior, Investigation, and Prosecution of American Terrorists Rockland. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. 2002

Southern Poverty Law Center. “Intelligence Project – Active Hate Groups in 2006”

http://www.splcenter.org/intel/map/hate.jsp?T=33&m=5 accessed 11/9/07

Stein, Jess, ed. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language – Unabridged Edition. New York: Random House. 1969

US Supreme Court, vol 378, Jacobellis V. Ohio, U. S. 184. 1964.

Wetzel, Steve. “Missionaries to the Unborn” http://www.mttu.com/main.htm accessed 11/9/07

Whitaker, David, ed. The Terrorism Reader- 2nd Edition London: Routledge. 2003


[1] Federal Bureau of Investigation.The FBI releases 19 photographs of individuals believed to be the hijackers of the four airliners that crashed on September 11, 01 (Press Release 27 September 2001) available from http://www.fbi.gov/pressrel/pressrel01/092701hjpic.htm accessed online 1/11/2008

[2] BBC World News. 15 February 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4899544.stm accessed online 10/23/2007

[3] BBC World News. 27 January 2006 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4732361.stm accessed online 1/12/2008

[4] Howie Carr, WRKO, 4/20/95

[5] Peter Ford, “Europe Cringes at Bush Crusade’ Against Terrorists” Christian Science Monitor 19 September 2001available from http://www.csmonitor.com/2001/0919/p12s2-woeu.html accessed online 1/11/2008

[6] Jess Stein, ed. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language – Unabridged Edition (New York: Random House, 1969), 1212.

[7] Steve Bryce, Worldwide Adherents of All Religions, Mid-2005, (File was created using Microsoft Excel 2007 and Irfanview 3.99.17:36, 16 February 2007) Source: Data taken from http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9432620/Worldwide-Adherents-of-All-Religions-Mid-2005 (accessed 1/14/2008)

[8] David Barrett et al, World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions – AD 30 to 2200, ( London, Oxford University Press, 2001)

[9] US Supreme Court, vol 378, Jacobellis V. Ohio, U. S. 184 (1964), 197

[10] Jeffrey Record. Bounding the Global War on Terrorism (SSI – U.S. Army War College 2003), 12

[11] David Whitaker, ed., The Terrorism Reader- 2nd Edition (London: Routledge, 2003), 4

[12] David Altheide.  Terrorism and the Politics of Fear (Oxford. AltaMira Press. 2006) 39

[13] Brent Smith and Kelly Damphousse, American Terrorism Study: Patterns of Behavior, Investigation, and Prosecution of American Terrorists, (National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 2002) 38-39.

[14] Anthony Burton. Revolutionary Violence (New York,  Crane Russak & Company, 1978) 4.

[15] MIPT. Terrorism Knowledge Base, http://www.tkb.org/Category.jsp?catID=10, accessed 1/09/08

[16] Ibid. http://www.tkb.org/Category.jsp?catID=8, accessed 1/09/08

[17] MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base, http://www.tkb.org/IncidentClassModule.jsp, accessed 1/09/08

[18] Thomas O’Connor, Religious Terrorism, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/TOCONNOR/429/429lect13.htm, accessed 1/12/08

[19] US Department of State, Office of Counterterrorism Fact Sheet- October 11, 2005 Foreign Terrorist Organizations

[20] Brent Smith and Kelly Damphousse, American Terrorism Study: Patterns of Behavior, Investigation, and Prosecution of American Terrorists, (National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 2002) 35-36.

[21]Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Project – Active Hate Groups in 2006 http://www.splcenter.org/intel/map/hate.jsp?T=33&m=5 accessed 1/9/08

[22] David Altheide.  Terrorism and the Politics of Fear (Oxford. AltaMira Press. 2006) 39

[23] Heidi Ewing and Rachel Grady, Jesus Camp (Magnolia Home Video, 2005)

[24] Lawrence Pintak, The Terror Koan-American Buddhists Contemplate Violence, http://www.beliefnet.com/story/89/story_8930_2.html accessed 11/9/07